Test Stations

Surgery / General Surgery: Aortic Stenosis

  • Candidate Instructions
  • Actor Instructions
  • Mark Sheet
  • Score

Location: You are an FY1 in cardiovascular clinic, you have been asked by your consultant to perform a full cardiovascular examination and present to them

Patient: 45 year old presenting to out patient clinic

- Examine this patients cardiovascular system
- Talk through your examination whilst examining, stating any key positives and negatives
- After 6 minutes you will be asked a series of questions by the examiner

Candidate has been asked to examine the cardiovascular system. The candidate does not have to take a history. If they attempt to do so then please remind them this is an examination station only. However they are expected to gain consent for the examination.

ConsentCandidate appropriately introduced themselves with:
Full name
Clarifies who they are examining
Gains consent for examination

Examination introductionExamination introduction
Washes hands
Appropriate exposes patient
Positions patient correctly at 45 degrees

InspectionInspection from end of bed
Observes patient from end of bed
Comments on general appearance (well / unwell)
Comments if oxygen, fluids or monitoring is in place
Comments if walking aids are present

Peripheral examinationPeripheral examination, comments examining for
Capillary refill time
Temperature normal
Finger clubbing
Splinter hemorrhages
Tendon xanthomata

PulsesExamines for pulses
Radial pulse – rate, rhythm, volume, character
Candidate told - low ring, small volume pulse
Collapsing pulse – no marking point if candidate does not ask if any shoulder / doesn’t explain procedure
Radio-radial delay
Carotid pulse

FaceFace examined for:
Malar flush
Corneal arcus
Conjunctival pallor
Central cyanosis

InspectionCloser inspection for
Presence of pacemaker
Presence of midline sternotomy
Presence of vein harvesting scar on legs

PalpationPalpation for:
Apex beat – 5th intercostal space, midclavicular line

Auscultates whilst palpating carotid pulse
Aortic region (2nd right intercostal space)
Pulmonary region (2ne left intercostal space)
Tricuspid region (Left lower sternal edge i.e 4/5th intercostal space)
Apex region (Left 5th intercostal space mid-clavicular line)
Examines all 4 regions with both bell and diaphragm

Auscultation extendedAuscultation heart sounds extended
Carotid pulse auscultation, held at end expiration
Patient rolled onto left hand side, listening over apex, at expiration
Patient sitting forwards, leaning forwards, at expiration
Radiation of murmur to carotid

Auscultation extra-precordium
Auscultation of lung bases
Checks for sacral oedema
Checks for calf tenderness and pitting oedema

FinishingFinishing remarks
Invites patient to dress again
Re-washes hands
Offers to view observation chart (including BP, HR, O2 sat and T)

“Please listen to the following sound clip of auscultation of the heart and comment on this”

Heart sounds one and two present
Systolic murmur
Ejection systolic in nature

QuestionGiven the sound clip, what condition is this patient most likely have?
Aortic stenosis

QuestionWhat are the causes of aortic stenosis?
Calcific valve disease
Congenital bicuspid valve
Rheumatic heart disease

Advanced QuestionWhen is valve replacement indicated in aortic stenosis?
Symptomatic patients with serve AS (gradient >50)
Asymptomatic patient with left ventricular with ejection fraction less than
Asymptomatic patient with abnormal BP in response to exercise
Asymptomatic patient with a valve area less than 0.6 cm


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